Day for the Preservation of the
16 September 2009
This page describes how different countries
and regions around the world have planned to celebrate International
Ozone Day this year. If you wish us to add your activities, please
Secretary-General's Message on the International Day for the Preservation
of the Ozone Layer, 16 September 2009
Sustainable development depends, in large part,
on the implementation of agreed environmental goals, targets and
objectives. Among the considerable number of multilateral environmental
agreements agreed between states over the past 40 years, the Vienna
Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and, in particular,
its Montreal Protocol stands out.
Video News Release (VNR)
The UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme, in cooperation with UNEP's Division
of Communication and Public Information, has produced a short news
video about the interlinkages between ozone layer protection and climate
change in the context of the HCFC phase out and growing interest in
HFCs. It features high-level officials from UNEP including UNEP's
Executive Director and Under-Secretary General Achim Steiner, scientists
here for more details on the VNR
here to view the Country list VNR distribution
here to view the VNR Information Sheet
here to view the low version VNR. To download video, right click mouse
and 'save as target.'
Right on Target Screen Saver
the ocassion of Ozone Day UNEP DTIE OzonAction Programme has produced
a screen saver on developing countries' phase-out schedule.
To install the screen saver on your PC / Notebook:
1. Save the
zipped screen saver file into any folder on your local
2. Un-zip the saved file. A file with the name: target.scr will
appear in the folder.
3. Right-click on the file icon and select the "install"
option to install the screen saver.
If you would like to view the screen saver before installing, simply
double-click the target.scr file icon.
Please note that we have tested the screen saver only on Microsoft
Windows systems, hence we cannot guarantee it will also run on other
Information on Commercially Validated Methyl Bromide Alternative
Ozone Day, UNEP's CAP Regional Office for Africa produced a special
edition on 'Information on Commercially Validated Methyl Bromide
The emergence of commercially validated methyl bromide
alternatives now brings new prospects and despite the
challenges, Africa is witnessing the surfacing of the first
fruits of many years of hard work by growers, local universities,
research institutions, policy makers, Multilateral Fund (MLF) funded
projects, UNEP Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP) team, Implementing
agencies and bilateral partners, among other stakeholders.
This new breed of alternatives is now able to effectively compete
with methyl bromide production system not only in the technological
feasibility but also in the economic/commercial practicability.
Click here to read and download brochure
UNEP DTIE OzonAction Team in Paris wishes everyone a fruitful International
Ozone Day. OzonAction had the privilege of celebrating this event
with Ozzy Ozone and his partner Zoe.
Environment: European Union hails universal ratification of the
Montreal Protocol on protecting the ozone layer: EU Environment
Commissioner Stavros Dimas said: "I very much welcome the news
that the Montreal Protocol has finally achieved the universal recognition
it deserves. The progress the Protocol has achieved in protecting
both the ozone layer and the global climate shows that worldwide consensus
on exceptionally important environmental issues is achievable. This
is a very important and encouraging message that we have to keep in
mind as the world prepares to conclude what must be an ambitious global
agreement on climate change at the Copenhagen conference in December."
Customs and the Montreal Protocol: a successful partnership with
impressive results: WCO Secretary General, Kunio Mikuriya, said,
Protecting the environment is a priority for the WCO. All Customs
authorities have a very important role to play in ensuring a greener
and safer world as they are on the frontline and primarily responsible
for dealing with goods at borders. He added, While Customs
is fully aware of the challenges it faces in combating the illegal
trade in ODS and other environment-fragile goods, fauna and flora,
the WCO in partnership with its Member Customs administrations and
other interested parties will not flinch in its efforts to protect
the environment through effective border enforcement.
will be Andorra's first commemoration of the International Day for
the Preservation of the Ozone Layer. Below are some of the main activities
for this occasion:
here to view full programme
- The event will be opened by H.E. Mr. Vicenç Alay Ferrer,
Minister of Territorial Planning, Environment and Agriculture
on 16 September. The Minister will present the translation of
the comic book "Ozzy Goes Polar" to Catalan as well
as offer to all primary and secondary schools the Education Packs
developed by UNEP OzonAction Programme under the Multilateral
Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol with partners
UNESCO, WHO and UNICEF.
- A screening of a short animation created by the United Nations
for the celebration of the International Day for the Preservation
of the Ozone Layer.
- A series of conferences will be held on 17 September on Ozone
- A 4x4 metres snakes
and ladders game in Catalan was reproduced and will be made
available to all schools.
Luanda - The International Day
for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, celebrated every September
16, is an opportunity for a joint and fixed reflection on the need
of organising actions, as well as adopting behaviours that contribute
to protection of old protector of human beings on earth.
In the countrys capital city of Luanda, the workshops on the
date are happening at the Medium Polytechnic Institute, located in
Cazenga district, and at a drinkable water treatment station (southeast
of the city), where knowledge on ozone layer will be passed on.
The National Ozone Unit of Armenia
is planning the following activities to celebrate Ozone Day:
- Awareness seminar for students of the Yerevan Fine Arts Academy;
- Graffitii painting by students of the Yerevan Fine Arts Academy
on the yard walls of the Aesthetic Center . Only spray paints
with "Ozone-friendly" labels will be used.
- Exhibition-Awareness Seminar at the Yerevan Scientific-Technical
- A series of seminars in the Middle Schools of Yerevan for the
period of 16-30 September;
- All the above mentioned activities will be highlighted by the
Mass Media and a special issue of the "Environmental Diary"
Programme will be dedicated to Ozone Day (to be issued late September).
To celebrate Ozone Day, the SOCAR
(State Oil Company of Azerbaijan Republic) will conduct a children's
competition - triathlon of its kind titled as "Triozon"
(3Ozon) with children's participation in the territory of oil-gas
extracting Body "Bibi-Heybatneft". The participants - 50
students from local schools and Ecological Lyceum 291 will be divided
into five teams. A distinguishing feature of each team - will be its
colour (helium balloons tied to each participant's hand).
here for full details
Barbados' Ozone Day activities
are as follows:
- The HCFC poster has been reproduced and is being distributed
- Ozone- friendly tips are being aired on the radio;
- An ozone-related article has been published in the nation newspaper;
- Posting of an Ozone Day message from the Minister in both local
news papers and a full page feature in one of them; and
- My Ozone Wish PSA will be aired on local TV on 16 September.
is planning the following activities for Ozone Day:
Commémoration de la journée mondiale de préservation
de la couche d'ozone: En prélude à cette journée,
le ministre béninois de l'environnement et de la protection
de la nature, Justin Adanmayi, a adressé un message à
A cette occasion, il a énuméré les dates butoirs
convenues par la communauté internationale pour mettre fin
à la production, à la vente voire à l'utilisation
dans les pays en développement, des produits les plus virulents
causant le plus de dommage à la couche d'ozone.
Ozone Day was observed in the morning of 16th September 2009 in the
swimming pool complex in Thimphu, Bhutan. Organized by the National
environment Commission Secretariat, the Chief Guest H.E. Tengye Lyonpo
Khandu Wangchuk stressed on the importance of saving ozone layer and
making it a safer place for all plants and animals.
||Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia & Herzegovina organized the following activities in celebration
of Ozone Day:
- Information about the significance of Ozone day was posted
on the official website of the Ministry. Click here to view report;
- Information was sent to the newspaper agency and distributed
to all electronic and printed media (in attachment). Information
was posted on 16 web pages;
- Interviews on the main radio station on 16 September and few
- Performance by Youth NGO KULT BiH with aim of paying attention
to the harmfull effects of UV rays on 16 September. This was bradcasted
by all major TV stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (photos in
attachment). Prior to that they performed lessons in several primary
schools and arranged competition for best paintings, see on web
is today celebrating Ozone Day at Beijing University. Government officials,
UNEP representatives, university students, business CEOs and NGOs
are attended the event. The event was chaired by Prof. Zhang Shiqiu,
Vice Dean of College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering of
Peking University. Mr. Rajendra Shende, Head of UNEP DTIE OzonAction
Branch delivered the message of the UN Secretary-General Mr. Ban Ki-moon
on the 2009 International Ozone Day. Prof. Wang Limei, Vice Executive
Director of Peking University and Mr. Wen Wurui, the Director General
of Foreign Economic Cooperation Office of MEP delivered the opening
remarks and Mr. Zhang Shigang, UNEP Country Coordinator delivered
the closing remarks at the end of the event.
T-shirts, posters, banners, stickers were produced to raise awareness
on ozone-related issues.
here for full details of event
this year's theme of the European Mobility Week "Improving City
Climates" is greatly connected to fighting climate changes in
general, Croatia decided on improved promotion of the International
Ozone Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer during the European
Mobility Week, especially on 16 September 2009. Croatia invited all
participating cities and towns to develop various activities to promote
the International Ozone Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer.
Croatia organised dissemination of Ozzy Ozone educational materials
in 17 participating cities throughout the country to draw people's
attention to the preservation of the Ozone Layer.
The web site of the Ministry
of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning and Construction
has announced the International Ozone Day for the Preservation of
the Ozone Layer at http://www.mzopu.hr/ and invited all those interested
to join in and promote the International Ozone Day for the Preservation
of the Ozone Layer.
here to view detailed activity report
The following activities will be undertaken
in Cyprus, to celebrate Ozone Day:
- Broadcasting radio transmission in 2 Cypriot channels, with
participation of officers of Environment Service of Cyprus, discussing
- Broadcasting ozzy ozone tv spots in the main tv channels of
- Distribute and make public some promotional materials about
Ozone, such as brochure and leaftlets.
Activities planned to observe
Ozone Day in Dominica are as follows:
Read article: High
School students gain more knowledge on ozone layer depletion effects
- September 13, 2009 - Five kilometer run/walk with the participation
of Dominica Olympic Association, netballers, footballers, Ross
University and other sports and health enthusiasts;
- September 14 - 15 - training and certification of refrigeration
and air- conditioning technicians in "Good Practices in Refrigeration,
" using both theoretical and practical modules. Barges, code
of good practice booklets and individual presentation of packages
of tools and equipment will form part of the session;
- . September 16 - Address by Minister of the Environment and
a panel discussion on "Ozone Layer Depletion and its Implication
for Human Health." The audience would be students from higher
form secondary schools in Roseau and panelist would come from
the Ministry of Health, the Ozone Unit and Technician Association
EAA-NOU is regulating a celebration
for the International day for the protection of the Ozone Layer during
the period 16-30 September 2009.
The celebration includes the following events:
here for full details in Arabic and English
Maged George, Minister of State for Environmental Affairs, will
meet Mr. Marco Gonzalez, Executive Secretary of the Vienna Convention
and Montreal Protocol, where they are to hold a press conference.
- A workshop in cooperation with the United Nations Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO) to introduce the incentive program
to replace chillers using CFC that deplete the Ozone Layer.
- Announcing the outcome of the "Ozone Protectors" competition
organized by the EEAA, in collaboration with the United Nations
Environment Program (UNEP) and published on the website of the
Ministry of State for the Environment - Ozone Unit.
here for the MInister's statement
here to view awareness posters
||Former Yugoslav Republic
year celebration of Ozone Day was dedicated to the young population.
Students from the art school were invited to participate at the painting/graffiti
competition. The competition theme was "Ozone Protection Unifies
the World". The young artists applied special technique on wall
painting/graffiti. They expressed themselves through colorful ideas
showing to the audience that they are completely ready to take the
future of the environment in their own hands and contribution to a
clean and healthy environment.
here for detailed report
to view graffiti paintings:
image 1| image
2 | image
3 | image
5 | image
Où en est-on avec le trou dans la couche dozone ? Aloccasion
de la Journée internationale de la protection de la couche
A ce jour, le Protocole de Montréal, signé en 1987,
a permis de réduire de 95 % les substances qui appauvrissent
la couche dozone. Vingt-deux ans après la découverte
de ce phénomène, quelle est la situation ?
Invitées : Sophie Godin-Beekmann, directrice de recherche,
secrétaire de la commission internationale sur l'ozone, IO3C
Khalida Bouzar, directrice adjointe de la division Technologie,
Industrie et Economie du Programme des Nations Unies pour lEnvironnement,
Reportage de Claire Martin au Chili, pays menacé directement
par le trou dans la couche dOzone.
ici pour eouter l'l'interview
National Ozone Unit, Grenada will launch it's celebrations for Ozone
Layer with the unveiling and erection of a
banner to highlight the day outside the office of the NOU. The
activities planned fot this year include:
- The prodcution of a 30 minute documentary on the involvement
and achievement of Grenada as a party to the Montreal Protocol;
- A workshop for Secondary School Teachers; the launch of the
Ozonaction Eduction Packs and the launch of the NOU website. A
live streaming of the two activities are expected to be shown
on the NOU Grenada website (barring no internet issues). An invitation
is extended to all to log on to nougrenada.com to view the activities
from 9:00 a.m.
- A live radio and telvision braodcast of a commemorative message
from the MInister of Environment.
International Ozone Day celebrated: The 15th International
Ozone Day was celebrated on 16 September 2009 at the FICCI Golden
Jubilee Auditorium in New Delhi to commemorate the signing of the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The
theme for this year was Universal participation Ozone
protection unifies the World. Shri Jairam Ramesh, Minister of
State for Environment & Forests was the Chief Guest on this occasion.
Speaking on the occasion Shri Ramesh said that India was one of the
first developing countries to join the Montreal Protocol and pledge
its commitment to protect the Ozone Layer.
Source: Ministry of Environment
of India: Pune
has a rolel to play in combating ozone depletion: In the days
to come, the city (Pune) will have a significant role to play in the
development of the Gen-next technology to bring down the level of
hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) and hydrochloroflurocarbons (HCFCs), with
a view to repairing the damage done to the Ozone level, noted environmentalists
Gus Welder and Stephen Anderson said on Monday. ... The experts were
speaking at a press conference organised during a programme on the
role of the Montreal Protocol treaty in combating climate change,
as a backdrop to International Ozone Day which falls on September
16. The event was inaugurated by Pune municipal commissioner Mahesh
photos from this event: image1
image 4 |
Other related articles:
joins hands with scientists to develop GenNext technologyUNEP
to meet city industry heads next year
Ozone Day News articles from India
As Israel's largest Green organization, one of KKL-JNF's major goals
is fighting global warming and participating in the international
effort to protect the earth's flora and fauna. Forests planted by
KKL-JNF weaken the global greenhouse effect by releasing oxygen into
the atmosphere a means of carbon sequestration. Furthermore,
trees assist the ozone layer by mitigating the intensity of the suns
rays and creating shade, thereby establishing a more pleasant microclimate.
In addition, trees prevent desertification on the perimeters of arid
regions and form a barrier against pollution and dust particles.
2009 representatives of Ozone center of Kyrgyzstan took part in a
number of activities, held at schools and universities in Bishkek
city as well as in the regions of the republic. In general, on 16th
September about 2400 people (pupils, students, teachers) over the
republic (Bishkek city's, Issyk-Kul, Chyi, Talass regions schools'
pupils and students of Bishkek city, Osh and Jalalabad regions' universities)
took part in mass ecological actions, devoted to International day
of ozone layer protection.
here for more news on Ozone Day
Liberia today joined countries the world over to celebrate International
Ozone Day under the theme: Montreal Protocol brings mutual benefits.
The Head of the Ozone Unit at the Environment Protection Agency said
the celebration focused on educating institutions using chemicals
and depletion substances.
Le Madagascar a célébrer
la Journée Internationale pour la Protection de la Couche d'Ozone,
et à cette occasion nombreuses activités ont eu lieu,
dont à titre d'exemple:
ici pour voir le programme d'activités en détail
- Cérémonie officielle de remise des " Appareils
Identificateurs " des SAO à la Direction Générale
des Douanes et des Caisses à Outils à L'Union des
Frigoristes de Madagascar(UFM);
- Atelier de formation et de démonstration sur les matériels
nouvellement acquis (MEF/BNO-ONUDI-UFM);
- Réalisation et diffusion du Spot de sensibilisation sur
la JMO 2009;
- Rédaction et diffusion d'articles sur la protection de
la couche d'Ozone dans la Presses écrites;
- " Diffusion d'un film de sensibilisation sur la protection
de la couche d'Ozone dans les Télévisions;
- " Confection et dissémination d'un VCD - compilation
de Films sur la protection de la couche d'Ozone.
The Department of RMI-EPA planned the following activities for
- One week of awareness outreach in four islands in the Marshall
Islands to raise awareness by visiting schools, communities and
- radio, TV broadcast as well as announcements in newspapers
- poster competition in elementary and high schools
- essay competition in elementary and high schools
Read the full programme
Moldova is planning the following activities
for Ozone Day :
here for full details.
- Press conferences;
- An 'Ecology hour' with the Institute
of Ecology and Geography together with primary and secondary school
- Broadcasting radio transmission -round
- Workshop with doctors;
- Distribution of ozone related material.
The Nationa Ozone Authority prepared the following programme for
- Published an article on Interlinkages between Ozone layer and
climate change in the daily newspaper;
- Organised a press conference;
- Translated and published the OzonAction education pack for secondary
Click here to view detailed programme
organised the following events for Ozone Day:
Click here to view detailed programme
- On 16 September, the Minister of Forestry, H.E. Brig-Gen Thein
Aung gave an opening speech, followed by presentations on ozone
layer protection and future challenges;
- A Customs Awareness Workshop was held on 17 September;
- A HCFCs Alternatives in the Room Air-Conditioning sector was
held on 18 September. Represntatives from NCEA, UNIDO participated
in the workshop.
A l'ocasion de la Journée Internationale de la Protection de
la Couche d'Ozone, le Niger prépare le suivant:
ici pour voir le programme d'activités en détail.
- Discours radio- télévisé du Ministre;
- Jeunesse au micro émission de l'ORTN;
- Sketch de Sensibilisation;
- Point de Presse par le BNO;
- Soirée culturelle.
ISLAMABAD, Sep 15 (APP): Like other world nations, Pakistan will also
be observing International Ozone Day on Wednesday.
The Environment Ministry (Ozone Cell) will bring out special newspapers
advertisement and broadcast/telecast talk shows, interviews of experts
to highlight significance of ozone layer and Pakistans international
commitment for its preservation.
Arts and speech competitions will be held at various academic institutions
of twin cities while the Ozone Cell, Ministry of Environment will
organize a seminar on October 05.
Quezon City (16 September) -- Environment Secretary Jose L. Atienza
Jr. today led the country's celebration of September 16 as International
Day for the Preservation of the Ozone Layer, which coincides with
the 22nd Anniversary of the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer.
||Republic of Korea
The Republic of Korea is translating the HCFC poster for distribution
on Ozone Day.
here to view poster
Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning stated that today Serbia
will mark the International Ozone Layer Protection Day together with
194 signatory countries of the Vienna Convention for the Protection
of the Ozone Layer and the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete
the Ozone Layer.
The statement adds that Minister of Environment and Spatial Planning
Oliver Dulic has invited citizens to contribute to the protection
of the ozone layer by joining the Be an Ozone-Friendly Consumer
here to views some photos: image
2 | image
3 | image
4 | image
5 | image
here to view report of event
16 September 2009 marks an exceptional milestone for the Montreal
Protocol on Ozone Depleting Substances. Today Timor-Leste has completed
the official ratification of the ozone protection treaties, making
the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer and the
Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer the first
treaty to ever achieve universal participation.
The Daily Mirror, Sri Lanka's largest selling English daily, has today
(16 September) dedicated it's front page to International Ozone Day.
The illustrative article gives details about ozone layer protection,
uses of ODSs, how to control the imports of ODS in Sri Lanka and how
to be ozone friendly.
Click here to view article
Swaziland has established recovery and recycling centres and has trained
technicians in the mobile air conditioning and refrigeration sectors
on good practices and use of new gases that have less harmful effects
on the ozone layer. This was said by Minister of Tourism and Environmental
Affairs Macford Sibandze at a press conference marking the International
Day for the Protection of the Ozone Layer. The day commemorates the
date of the signing in 1987 of the Montreal Protocol on Substances
that Deplete the Ozone Layer.
||St Vincent & the
St Vincent and the Grenadines will be undertaking the following activities
for Ozone Day:
- Address by Minister on National Television and radio
- Live interactive radio panel discussion
- Grand Motorcade from Central leeward to North windward of the
island, where sun umbrellas and refrigeration magnets promoting
the retrofit programme would be distributed.
- Newspaper suppliment by RACTA (Technicians Association) .
The following activities have been planned for Ozone Day in Tajikistan:
- Meeting of associates of NOU and Committee on Environment Protection
all over the Republic in schools, large workshops on refrigeration
equipment preparation and customs service departments, will be
presented and general lectures concerning ozone layer protection
and main purposes and tasks of the Vienna Convention and the Montreal
- A special television broadcast devoted to celebration of Ozone
Day has been prepared. This film will be translated on Central
TV channel of the Republic of Tajikistan on 16th September 2009.
- Thematic materials devoted to ozone layer protection will be
distributed by volunteers for dissemination to the public community.
joint workshop with the Ruamrudee International School (RIS) in
Thailand and UNEP are organising a workshop to commemorate Ozone
Day on 16 September. This workshop will conclude with a global roundtable
discussion about strategies for disseminating knowledge about ozone
layer protection to peers in schools.
RIS has also produced the displayed poster for Ozone Day. Click
on image to view full poster.
here to view workshop programme
here for full report
Timor-Leste will hold a ceremony at
the Hotel Novo Horizonte on 16 September to commemorate Ozone
Day. The ceremony will be attended by the President of the Republic,
the Prime Minister, other key Government officials and representation
here to view programme
A l'occasion de la Journée Internationale pour la Protection
de la Couche d'Ozone, le magazine, 'Togo Press,' a publier un article
sur "la lutte contre le réchauffement climatique: de l'élimination
totale des substances appauvrissant la couche d'ozone."
||Trinidad and Tobago
Trinidad and Tobago is planning the following activities for Ozone
here to view Environmental Management Authority's web page on activities
for Ozone Day
- Recognition Awards and Auction of Children's Posters (auction
proceeds to be donated to the Trinidad and Tobago Cancer Society);
- Newspaper Supplement Public Outreach (at malls, Piarco International
Airport and in Tobago);
- Poster Competition;
- Radio and TV Spots Production of a National DVD on Phaseout
of CFCs in Trinidad & Tobago.
- HPMP Inception Workshop (on 10 September).
The following activities were undertaken to celebrate Ozone Day in
here to view newspaper article
- Children's drawing competition on the asphalt will be held in
the Orphans Palace (orphanage);
- Broadcasting in Mass media (newspapers, TV, radio) ;
||United Arab Emirates
UAE Marks World Ozone Day: The UAE will join the world community
in marking the World Ozone Day held this year under the theme: "Universal
participation: Ozone protection unifies the world".
H.E. Dr. Rashid Ahmed bin Fahad, Minister of Environment and Water
said : The UAE celebration of this international day
springs out of its keenness and care for human health.
||Bolivarian Republic of
The following event will be undertaken to celebrate Ozone Day in Venezuela:
- El Movimiento Ecológico de Venezuela junto a estudiantes
de la UCV y simpatizantes, celebrará este miércoles
16 el Día Mundial de la Preservación de la Capa
de Ozono, se informará a través de trípticos
la importancia del esta fecha, actividades en pro de la ecología,
así como dar a conocer los últimos informes sobre
esta capa básica para mantener el equilibrio vital en La
Lugar: Estación Ciudad Universitaria, frente a las Tres
A ceremony was held in Hanoi on September 16 by the Ministry of Natural
Resources and Environment (MONRE) to celebrate International Ozone
Layer Protection Day.
MONRE Deputy Minister Nguyen Van Duc said that Vietnam has fully implemented
the Montreal Protocol since its approval in 1994. He added that the
country will prohibit the import of harmful substances such as CFCs
from January 1, 2010.
Zimbabweans, on Wednesday the 16th September 2009, we will join the
rest of the World to commemorate 22 years of the existence of the
Montreal Protocol on Substances that deplete the Ozone Layer. It is
now a well established fact that some widely used man made chemicals
have been destroying the stratospheric ozone layer since the middle
of the last century. The Stratospheric Ozone Layer shields and protects
life on Earth form dangerous ultraviolet radiation form the sun. Depletion
of this vital shield will have serious consequences for human health,
our food production system and ultimately the entire ecosystem.