through its OzonAciton Programme under the Division of Technology,
Industry and Economics, is one of the four Implementing Agencies
that provides assistance to developing countries which are a Party
to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer
(MP), also known as Article 5 countries. This assistance is geared
to help A-5 countries meet their compliance requirements under the
In 2002, through the Compliance Assistance Programme (CAP), OzonAction
reinvented its approach in delivering services such that the Parties
are given quicker access to guidance and information and are given
greater ownership of the projects through proactive participation.
This was made possible by decentralizing project management from
Paris to the Regional Offices in Mexico City (for Latin America
and the Caribbean region), Bangkok (for Southeast Asia and the Pacific
region), Nairobi (for Africa) and Bahrain (for West Asia region).
In 2005, a new regional network has also been established to cover
Parties from Eastern Europe and Central Asia and is currently operating
from the Paris office.
The Capacity Building Team (CBT) was given the mandate to oversee
and monitor the implementation of projects and activities aimed
at enabling the Parties to meet its compliance commitments. The
team in Paris acts as a central liaising unit with the other Implementing
Agencies and the Ozone and Fund Secretariats. Within the CAP team,
the Paris office facilitates inter-regional coordination of capacity
building activities to ensure consistency in the modality and standard
of delivery in all the regions. Information and data from the regions
are gathered and consolidated in Paris prior to submission to the
Secretariats or dissemination to relevant agencies.
On a regional level, the CAP teams, with their proximity to the
countries, are able to respond and provide assistance more quickly
to the Parties. The regular interaction with country representatives
enables the regional teams to identify the needs and develop regional
or national initiatives to facilitate and expedite compliance with
the MP measures. Furthermore, the constant flow of information between
Paris and the Regional Offices enables the team to keep abreast
with developments and the status of progress in all aspects of implementation
thereby contributing to and ensuring productivity and efficiency.
The CP/RMP were developed specifically as a strategy to phase out
ODS in Low Volume ODS-Consuming countries (LVC - Article 5 countries
with a calculated level of ODS consumption less than 360 ODP tonnes
per year), since almost all of the ODS in these countries is used
as refrigerants in the refrigeration and air conditioning sector.
A typical RMP would entail a number of activities aimed at assisting
the countries reduce their ODS consumption and emissions through
various means, namely through the improvement of servicing practices
in the refrigeration and air-conditioning sector (RAC); the introduction
of control mechanisms such as ODS import/export licensing systems,
quotas for ODS imports and restrictions to import ODS containing
Regulations, economic incentives and disincentives, training and
awareness-raising activities are also some of the tools used to
help achieve these goals.
Upon completion of the Country Programme and the implementation
of the projects specified under the RMP, the CAP provides further
assistance to the countries by updating their strategies and ODS
phase-out plans through CP Updates and RMP Updates. The main purpose
being to adequately reflect the evolution of situations in countries
by adjusting the ODS phase-out strategies as well as proposing new
or additional activities to tackle the remaining ODS consumption.
As the MP enters the final compliance period between 2007-2010,
requiring Parties to reduce by 85% and 100% respectively its ODS
consumption, the CAP helps the Parties meet this obligation through
the formulation and implementation of Terminal Phase-out Management
Plans (TPMP). In terms of activities proposed therein, a TPMP is
similar to an RMP or an RMPU, except that the TPMP allows for greater
flexibility to re-adjust the activities during the implementation
period to address - in real-time - the actual situation in the countries.
Most of the TPMPs that have been approved contain investment and
non-investment activities. The CBT provides policy advice and technical
guidance in the formulation and implementation of the non-investment
The main purpose of an ISP is to enable a Party to establish the
necessary framework within the national government and put up a
national focal point to address issues and activities related to
the Montreal Protocol. The National Ozone Unit (NOU) facilitates
interaction between relevant partners and government bureaus as
well as the implementation of activities. The ISP also enables the
NOU, the relevant government representative/institution and other
stakeholders to obtain and develop the necessary skills and understanding
of the different procedures and issues relative to the Montreal
Protocol thus expediting and ensuring proper implementation and
The NOU is also responsible for submitting all the reporting requirements
for its ODS phase-out activities, particularly its annual ODS consumption
data, to UNEP, the Ozone Secretariat and the Multilateral Fund Secretariat.
On a regional level this workshop helps explain how to develop national
ODS licensing systems to ozone, customs officers and relevant government
officers in the region. These also serve as venues for the countries
in the region to exchange experiences and learn from one another
on the approach and development of their respective systems as well
as the challenges to expect and how to address them. This facilitates
countries to develop an action plan, including the drafting and
approval of ODS legislation.
On a national level, the ODS legislation/import licensing system
should first be signed into law before any customs training can
be conducted (as introduced by the Montreal Amendment). Once enacted,
the activities can then take place. The workshop shall aim to sensitize
customs officers on ozone issues and their country's commitments
vis-à-vis the MP. The training also focuses on the implementation
of national ODS legislation and the prevention of illegal trade
in ODS. The customs officers are provided the necessary skills and
equipment (refrigerant gas identifiers) to help them conduct inspections
efficiently and follow the required proper procedures when dealing
with ODS shipment.
This follows the regional workshop on control and monitoring to
help ozone officers inform and consult decision-makers and other
stakeholders to ensure both their involvement and support for the
implementation of the action plan, including drafting and approval
of ODS legislation. In some regions, follow-up workshops on enforcement,
monitoring and control of ODS are also held within 2 years of the
first regional workshops.
These are training workshops to raise awareness of refrigeration
technicians (both from the formal and informal sectors) on ozone
issues and sensitize them on their vital contribution in the fight
to protect the ozone layer. Refrigeration technicians receive training
on good servicing and containment practices to ensure that leakage
of CFCs is avoided during servicing. They are also made aware of
the latest technologies and ODS alternatives available in the market
to enable a smooth sectoral transition to non-ODS technologies.
Good practice training is implemented as early as possible after
approval of the RMP.
Ozone officers, in co-operation with the refrigeration association
and other stakeholders, develop and adopt a code of good practices
in refrigeration servicing.
The goal is to establish a recovery and recycling (R&R) network
for CFC refrigerants to reduce the need for virgin refrigerants.
R&R programmes are established once licensing systems are operational.
The 1990 London Amendment to the Montreal Protocol added Methyl
Bromide to the list of ODS to be phased out. The challenge is great
as there is no single substance that can substitute for all Methyl
Bromide applications. However, alternatives have been found for
almost 90% of MeBr uses. UNEP has since assisted Parties with enabling
activities to draft phase out plans, promote public awareness and
increase country ownership of phase out efforts according to the
Montreal Protocol phase out schedule.
In 2003 the Global Environment Facility approved funds for a UNEP-UNDP
joint project for methyl bromide total sector phase out in 7 countries
in Central Europe and Central Asia. This project will be completed
in 2007. Farmer Field School training in MeBr soil fumigation alternatives
was also implemented by UNEP in cooperation with Food and Agriculture
Organisation (FAO) for countries in Africa and Latin America. The
CBT continues to provide input to other methyl bromide projects
submitted to the Executive Committee for funding approval. Among
the recent projects are for countries like Fiji and Sierra Leone
and bilateral projects with the Spanish Government for Guatemala
" The Capacity Building team is often called to assist in
various initiatives involving the OzonAction Branch. CBT's participation
ranges from providing partners with advice or guidance in preparation
of proposals, reports, etc. to taking the lead in organising certain
activities/projects. It has been directly involved in several global
initiatives interlinking Ozone with related issues such as Climate
Change, the Bali
Strategic Plan, the Strategic
Approach to International Chemicals Management (SAICM) for which
projects or activities are being developed or are ongoing and have
components that address aspects of capacity building and technology
transfer as well as other cross cutting issues.
" In 2005, the CBT facilitated the renewal of 36 Institutional
Strengthening Projects with a total value amounting to US$2.6 million.
In each of the renewal cases, proper policy advice to the NOUs as
well as guidance in preparation of required documentation was provided
to the respective countries by the CBT team.
" Project proposals and Work Programme Amendment submissions
for the 45th, 46th and 47th ExCom meetings were also coordinated
by the CBT. A total of 72 projects have been approved during this
period amounting to a total of US$12,795,572. Out of these projects
US$2,632,426 were approved for 36 Institutional Strengthening Projects
including IS renewals, US$185,000 for 7 project preparations, US$318,546
for 11 training activities, US$9,659,600 for 18 technical assistance
" The CBT provided input to UNEP's web-based capacity building
database under the Bali Strategic Plan and also coordinated OzonAction
input to the Mauritius International Meeting (MIM) on SIDS. A side
event on "Lessons Learned in Implementing Multilateral Environmental
Agreements in SIDS" was organized in consultation with the
Governments of Saint Lucia and Mauritius, DEPI and the Secretariat
of the Basel Convention. This session shared lessons learned in
developing innovative approaches and building capacity of SIDS to
negotiate, comply with, implement, and enforce MEAs. The session
emphasized approaches to provide financial and technical assistance,
regional and South-South collaboration and coordination, simplified
reporting, and capacity building. The session also highlighted UNEP
initiatives to assist SIDS in implementing MEAs, and the Montreal
Protocol was discussed as a successful MEA.
" The CBT, in consultation with other Implementing Agencies
and external and internal partners, also developed a proposal to
prepare a project on awareness-raising and information dissemination
in the chiller sub-sector ("Global Chiller Demonstration Project").
The proposal envisages the setting up of a website for relevant
stakeholders that will provide the latest available information
from the ongoing projects in the sub-sector implemented by other
IAs. The proposal also includes several experience-sharing activities.
The proposal was approved for $200,000 at the 48th Excom Meeting.
" The OzonAction Branch, through the CBT, provides assistance
and acts as the informal Secretariat for the Green Customs Initiative.
The CBT provided assistance in the planning and implementation of
the MP components for the pilot training workshops organized in
2005. A special website was launched (www.greencustoms.org)
to provide up-to-date information on developments under the initiative
as well as information from GCI Partners. A Training Guide covering
several MEAs and other international treaties with trade restrictions
is also being finalized.
" Finally, the CBT was also involved in the following: conducted
the annual bidding exercise for the procurement of training equipment;
facilitated the signing of the MOU with the Oceania Customs Organisation
Customs Organisation (WCO) and the National
Academy for Customs Excise and Narcotics (NACEN); the completion
of UNEP's manual on Compliance with and Enforcement of MEAs; the
completion of Albania's National Phase Out Plan (NPP) in collaboration
with UNIDO. It also assisted the Senior Monitoring and Evaluation
Officer in its work on the evaluation of customs officers' training
implemented by the OzonAction Branch.
The project proposal to update the
Training Manual for Customs Officers was approved at the 48th
Meeting of the Executive Committee of the Multilateral Fund Secretariat
in April 2006. The CBT is coordinating this project in close collaboration
with the regional CAP officers, customs officers and experts in
the field. The update will include the latest developments in the
area of international ODS trade (legal and illegal) of which customs
officers need to be aware. It is also envisioned to complement the
manual with an electronic version and a web portal.
The web-based Capacity Building Centre currently under development
will take into account the current capacity building situation and
sets as its objective (i) providing an easy reference tool for monitoring
and implementation of the capacity building activities, (ii) streamlining
and supporting continuous information exchange between the regional
activities for implementation and planning, (iii) facilitating cross-fertilization
between the regional CAP teams, particularly RMPO/PEOs, and the
NOUs/other IAs etc., and (iv) providing a quick mechanism for addressing
"burning" issues through adequate technical and policy
The CBT, in close collaboration with the CAP officers, (particularly
those in ROA,) and external partners, is also contributing to the
development of a global methyl bromide project which will include
a farmer field school component for Africa. It will also coordinate
the implementation of the "Global Technical Assistance Programme
in the Chiller Sub-sector"
To ensure completion of the projects, the CBT will coordinate regular
review of the status of project implementation and conduct effective
follow-up and offer appropriate assistance where necessary.
Mr. Jim Curlin
Capacity Building Manager
UNEP DTIE OzonAction Branch
39-43 quai André Citroën
75739 Paris cedex 15, France
Tel : +33 (0) 1 44 37 14 55
Fax : +33 (0) 1 44 37 14 74
Email : email@example.com
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