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JumpStart Project

HCFC Phaseout and Mobile Air Conditioning

The Montreal Protocol has, in the past, already bought the world the equivalent of decades-worth of CO2 emissions. In the future, the world has a convenient opportunity to address an inconvenient truth. Dramatically cutting HCFCs emissions -nearly 2000 times more potent Greenhouse Gases ( GHGs) than CO2,-and improving the energy efficiency of air-conditioning and refrigeration appliances that use them is "..the key to catalyzing a transition to a low carbon , resource efficient Green Economy" according to Achim Steiner , United Nations Under Secretary General and Executive Director of UNEP.

While the opportunity to achieve climate benefit appears to be a 'low hanging fruit', the 'JumpStart' to pick those fruits poses a significant challenge as most HFCs, which are are popular alternatives for HCFCs are also potent GHGs. The EU has adopted a regulatory framework aimed at reducing emissions of HFCs. "This policy is widely acknowledged as a global model that leads to more responsible management of the substances.." according to Marianne Wenning, Head of Unit ENV C.4 of the European Commission.

This information and knowledge-exchange is just one of the tools of responsible management of Ozone Depleting Substances with the objective to achieve 'low hanging' climate benefit.

Rajendra Shende, Head OzonAction, UNEP DTIE


This project has two components:

  1. "JumpStart" project to encourage developing countries to expedite their compliance with the HCFC phase-out obligations and to adopt environmentally friendly alternatives to HCFCs.

  2. Reducing car emissions in China and India's Mobile Air Conditioning (MAC) sector: next generation MAC technology support

The project runs over 2009 - 2010 and is funded by the European Commission (Thematic Programme for Environment and Sustainable Management of Natural Resources, including Energy (ENRTP).


The overall objective of the project is to contribute towards the reduction of direct and indirect releases or emissions of ozone depleting substances (HCFCs) and greenhouse gases (HCFCs and HFCs) both through promotion of zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP) alternatives as well as promotion of best practices and better engineered and energy efficient technology.

Specific objectives:

  • HCFC phase-out: the specific objective of this component of the project is to facilitate information sharing on HCFCs and their alternatives, and build capacity for a smooth and efficient phase-out of HCFCs in developing countries to catalyse early action to comply with, or even move ahead of, the deadlines set by the Parties to the Montreal Protocol in encouraging the adoption of non ozone depleting, low or zero GWP and energy efficient technologies and alternatives. The information sharing and strengthened cooperation with partner organisations and industry would depend on the creation of informal networks of contacts between HCFC stakeholders in developing countries (government/ developing countries, as well as strengthened regional and bilateral cooperation. The project aims at creating higher awareness within developing countries of the alternative chemicals and technologies available, notably natural refrigerants, and of ways and means to facilitate their take-up. The project also aims at improved awareness in other related areas including such as funding available to support transition from HCFCs, management of HCFC banks, and actions to combat illegal trade in these chemicals.

  • Mobile Vehicle Air Conditioning. The specific objective of this component of the project is to facilitate awareness raising and provision of information on the availability of sustainable and environmentally friendly, non-ODS solutions for mobile air conditioning systems (MACs), focusing on new and near market MAC technology that (directly and indirectly) leads to lower greenhouse gas emissions, and reduced local pollution; responsible servicing practices of current technologies (e.g. recocovery, tools/ equipment, training programmes); and associated enabling policies and measures. This action will also promote international awareness of the environmental objectives which underlie the EC policies on MACs.


  • Targeted surveys on barriers to adoption of alternatives to HCFCs
  • Case studies on HCFC replacement
  • Creation of web fora for HCFC stakeholders
  • Two HCFC-related workshops and two workshops on MAC

Workshops under this project:

  • South America Workshop on low-GWP, energy-efficient HCFC replacement technologies in the Refrigeration and Air conditioning sector - Bogota, Colombia, 22 - 23 April 2010
  • Regional workshop on low-GWP HCFC replacement in the foam blowing sector in Asia, Seoul, Rep of Korea, 6-7 May 2010
  • Workshop on environmental impacts of next generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles' Air conditioning in China, Nanjing, China, 3 - 4 June 2010
  • Workshop on environmental impacts of next generation technologies for Mobile Vehicles' Air conditioning in India, Delhi, India, 7 - 8 June 2010



JumpStart HCFC Newsletter:



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List of HCFCs controlled under the Montreal Protocol
Applications where HCFCs are used
Refrigerant blends containing HCFCs
Frequently Asked Questions
Trade names of chemical products containing HCFCs
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UNIDO Montreal Protocol Unit External link
World Bank Montreal Protocol Operations External link


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