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Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management

Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas: Guidelines for Planning and Management, a landmark publication jointly published by UNEP, The World Conservation Unit (IUCN) and the World Tourism Organization (WTO) is a contribution to the International Year of Ecotourism 2002. The publication aims to assist protected area managers and other stakeholders in the planning and management of protected areas based on a wealth of practical case studies and experience.

The link between protected areas and tourism is as old as the history of protected areas. Protected areas need tourism, and tourism need protected areas. Tourism is essential for the world's economy. A substantial part of Gross domestic Product (GDP) and employment, especially in developing countries, is related to tourism. Protected areas, such as national parks and wilderness areas, now cover more than 10% of the earth's surface and play a vital and increasing role in tourism. A key challenge is sustainability - how protected areas can be managed effectively for tourism while ensuring their natural values - the assets that attract tourists - are protected for future generations. Though the relation between sustainable tourism and protected areas is complex and sometimes adversarial, tourism is always a critical component to consider in the establishment and management of protected areas.

Ensuring that tourism follows a sustainable path requires clear leadership and enhanced partnership at all levels, particularly between the tourism industry and relevant government and non government agencies. This book describes how this can be done.

Table of contents (PDF - 29,6 KB)

Forewords, Preface, About the Authors (PDF - 321 KB)

1. Introduction
(PDF -111 KB)

1.1 Purpose of the Guidelines
1.2 Tourism terms and definitions

2. Protected Areas, biodiversity and conservation (PDF - 157 KB)

2.1 A short history of protected areas
2.2 The IUCN Protected Area Management Category System

3. Tourism in protected areas (PDF - 214 KB)

3.1 Trends affecting the planning of tourism and protected areas
3.2 Growth and diversification of market niches
3.3 Potential benefits of tourism in protected areas
3.4 Potential risks of tourism in protected areas
3.5 Tourism in protected areas which are not publicly owned or managed
3.6. Summary and Guidelines

4. Planning for protected area tourism (PDF - 178 KB)

4.1 Protected area plans, policy and planning
4.2 Tourism in the Park Management Plan
4.3 Developing goals and objectives
4.4 Characteristics of successful protected area planning processes
4.5 Involving stakeholders
4.6 Managing conflict
4.7 Plan development and implementation

5. Sensitive development of infrastructure and services (PDF - 122 KB)

5.1 Culturally sensitive design and operation
5.2 Environmentally sensitive design and operation
5.3 Transportation and infrastructure
5.4 Evaluating development proposals

6. Managing the challenges of tourism in protected areas (PDF - 110 KB)

6.1 Management of risk and safety
6.2 Principles of visitor management in protected areas
6.3 Protected area management frameworks

7. Tools for visitor management (PDF - 246 KB)

7.1 A toolbox of strategies and tactics
7.2 Zoning in protected areas
7.3 Pricing for visitor management
7.4 Pricing for visitor management
7.5 Regulation of visitor use
7.6 Information and interpretation

8. The economics of tourism in protected areas (PDF - 72,5 KB)

8.1 The economic value of tourism
8.2 Measuring the economic impacts of tourism
8.3 Communicating economic impacts

9. Financial aspects of tourism in protected areas (PDF - 276 KB)

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Fund-raising opportunities for protected area mangers
9.3 Public and private sector financial relationships
9.4 Funding of protected areas through parastatals
9.5 International sources of assistance
9.6 Tourists' contribution via fees
9.7 Corporate contributions to protected areas
9.8 Managing concessions and contracts within protected areas
9.9 Summary

10. Human resources planning for tourism in protected areas (PDF - 96 KB)

10.1 Introduction
10.2 The human asset
10.3 Job analysis
10.4 Recruitment and selection
10.5 Human resource development
10.6 Performance evaluation

11. Monitoring tourism in protected areas (PDF - 82,5 KB)

11.1 Why monitor?
11.2 The characteristics of a monitoring programme
11.3 Developing a monitoring programme
11.4 Research


12. Conclusions
(PDF - 28,9 KB)

Appendices (PDF - 85,7 KB)
Appendix A.
Definitions of tourism
Appendix B. Park tourism definitions
Appendix C. Operational policies for tourism for the National Park Service of the United states of America
Appendix D. A comparison of five visitor management frameworks
Appendix E. European Charter for Sustainable Tourism in Protected Areas

References (PDF - 317 KB)



Language: English
Publication date: 2002
Programme: Tourism
ISBN: 2-8317-0648-3
Pages: 183